Objectives

Chapter IX: Section I:
  • How are the charges of Group A metal and nonmetal ions related to their positions in the periodic table?
  • How are the charges of some transition metal ions determined?
  • What are the two endings of the names of most polyatomic ions?
Chapter IX: Section II:
  • How are the names of binary ionic compounds determined?
  • How do you write the formulas for binary ionic compounds?
  • How do you write the formulas and names of compounds containing polyatomic ions?
Chapter IX: Section III:
  • What does a prefix in the name of a binary molecular compond tell you about the compound's composition?
  • How do you write the formula for a binary molecular compound?
Chapter IX: Section IV:
  • What are the three rules for naming acids?
  • How are the formulas of acids determined?
  • How are bases named?






Outlined Notes

Objectives

9.1 Naming Ions

Monatomic Ions
Monatomic Ions: Ions consisting of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of one or more valence electrons, respectively.
Cations
  • When the metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A lose electrons, they form cations with positive charges equal to their group member.
Anions
  • The charge of any ion of a Group A nonmetal is determined by subtracting 8 from the group number.
Ions of Transition Metals
  • The charges of the cations of many transition metal ions must be determined from the number of electrons lost.
Polyatomic Ions
Polyatomic Ions: Ions composed of more than one atom.
  • The names of most polyatomic anions end in -ite or -ate


external image atom-quantum.gif
9.2 Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
I. Binary Ionic Compounds
1. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
a. binary compound- composed of two elements and can be either ionic or molecular
b. To name any binary ionic compound, place the cation name first, followed be the anion name.
2. Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds
a.Write the symbol of the cation and the anion. Add whatever subscripts are needed to balance the charges.
II. Cmopounds with Polyatomic Ions
A. Write the symbol for the cation followed be the formula for the polyatomic ion and balance the charges.
1. Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
a. To name a compound containing a polyatomic ion, state the cation first and then the anoin just as you did in naming binary ionic compounds.

9.3 Naming and Writing Fromulas for Molecular Compounds
I. Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
A. A prefix in the name of a binary molecular copound tells how many atoms of an element are present in each molecule of the compound.
II. Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds
A. Use the prefixes in the name to tell you the subscript of each element in the formula. Then write the correct symbols for the two elements with the appropriate subscripts.

9.4 Acids and Bases- naming and writing the formula
I. Acids
A. compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
1. example: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, malic acid, nitric acid
Naming Common Acids
Anion Ending: Example: Acid Name: Example:
-ide: chloride: hydro (stem) -ic acid: hydrochloric acid
-ite: sulfite: (stem) -ous acid: sulfurous acid
-ate: nitrate: (stem) -ic acid: nitric acid:
B. Rules
1. When the name of the anion ends in -ide, the acid name begins with the prefix hydro-. The stem of the anion has the suffix -ic
and is followed by the word acid.
a. HCl - hydrochloric acid
b. H2S - hydrosulfuric acid
2. When the anion name ends in -ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix -ous, followed by the word acid.
a. H2SO3 - sulfurous acid
3. When the anion name ends in -ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix -ic, followed by the word acid.
a. HNO3 - nitric acid
C. Writing Formulas for Acids
1. Use the rules for writing the name of acids in reverse to write the formulas for acid.
Common Acids
Name: Formula
Hydrochloric acid: HCl
Sulfuric acid: H2SO4
Nitric acid: HNO3
Acetic acid: CH3COOH
Phosphoric acid: H3PO4
Carbonic acid: H2CO3
2. hydrobromic acid: hydro - prefix - ic suffix. Combination of H+ and Br- = HBr
D. Names and Formulas for Bases
1. base- an ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
+02. Bases are named in the same way as other ionic compounds. the name of the cation is followed by the name of the anion.
3. To write the formulas for the bases, write the symbol for the metal cation followed by the formula for the hydroxide ion.
4. Balance the ionic charges just as you do for any ionic compound
a. example: aluminum hydroxide Al 3+ and OH- = Al(OH)3
IIIII The Laws Governing Formulas and Names
A. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions
1.


Reference Pages

COVALENT BOND ANIMATION
COVALENT BOND ANIMATION

Water Molecule
Water Molecule


external image acids_01.jpgPH Scale

The basics of naming compounds
The basics of naming compounds
external image NomenclatureIonicCompoundsIcon.jpg

external image soft_landing_general.gifexternal image image?id=63171&rendTypeId=4

external image 28_9f73445c95f6b2b42ae0cbb377ffe06e.jpg
Element
Cation
Preferred Name
Other Name
copper
Cu+
copper (I)
cuprous
Cu2+
copper (II)
cupric

iron
Fe2+
iron (II)
ferrous
Fe3+
iron (III)
ferric

lead
Pb2+
lead (II)
plumbous
Pb4+
lead (IV)
plumbic

mercury
Hg22+
mercury (I)
mercurous
Hg2+
mercury (II)
mercuric

tin
Sn2+
tin (II)
stannous
Sn4+
tin (IV)
stannic
Acid
Name
Anion
Name

Acid
Name
Anion
Name
H2SO4
sulfuric
SO42-
sulfate

HCl
hydrochloric
Cl-
chloride
HNO3
nitric
NO3-
nitrate

HBr
hydrobromic
Br-
bromide
H3PO4
phosphoric
PO43-
phosphate

HClO3
chloric
ClO3-
chlorate
HC2H3O2
acetic
C2H3O2-
acetate

HClO2
chlorous
ClO2-
chlorite
H2SO3
sulfurous
SO32-
sulfite

HBrO3
bromic
BrO3-
bromate
HNO2
nitrous
NO2-
nitrite

HBrO
hypobromous
BrO-
hypobromite =Practice Problems=


Assignments


Practice Problems

1. Name the following ionic compounds:


Cr2(SeO4)3
Sr(ClO)2
MnO2
Na2O2

2. Give the chemical formulas for the following ionic compounds:

cobaltic nitrate
vanadium(V) oxide
magnesium dihydrogen phosphate
ammonium ferrous sulfate hexahydrate


. Name the following covalent compounds:

NO2
NO
N2O
P4O10

4. Give the chemical formulas for the following covalent compounds:

hydrogen sulfide
dinitrogen tetroxide


5. Name the following compounds/ions:

Na3N
CaCr2O7
HI(aq)
H2S(aq)
SeO3
SO32-

6. Give the chemical formulas for the following compounds/ions:

periodic acid
potassium superoxide
gallium arsenite
copper(I) sulfate
radium ion
ammonium hydrogen phosphate

PRACTICE PROBLEM ANSWERS 1-6

1.
Name the following ionic compounds:

Cr2(SeO4)3 chromium(III) selenate (Se and S are elements of the same group. Since SO42- is called sulfate, an educated guess is to name the SeO42- selenate.)
Sr(ClO)2 strontium hypochlorite
MnO2 manganese(IV) oxide ( 'manganese dioxide' is not a systematic name. The systematic naming method does not use prefixes in naming ionic compounds.)
Na2O2 sodium peroxide (sodium dioxide is incorrect because the anion is a peroxide anion, not an oxide anion.)

2. Give the chemical formulas for the following ionic compounds:

cobaltic nitrate Co(NO3)3
vanadium(V) oxide V2O5
magnesium dihydrogen phosphate Mg(H2PO4)2 dihydrogen phosphate is H2PO4-
ammonium ferrous sulfate hexahydrate (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2�6H2O

3. Name the following covalent compounds:

NO2 nitrogen dioxide
NO nitrogen monoxide; it is commonly called nitric oxide.
N2O dinitrogen monoxide; it is also called nitrous oxide or laughing gas.
P4O10 tetraphosphorus decaoxide

4. Give the chemical formulas for the following covalent compounds:

hydrogen sulfide H2S (It is not called dihydrogen sulfide because it takes two H+ to combine with one S2- to make a electrically neutral molecule. No other combination is possible.)
dinitrogen tetroxide N2O4

5. Name the following compounds/ions:

Na3N sodium nitride
CaCr2O7 calcium dichromate
HI(aq) hydroiodic acid
H2S(aq) hydrosulfuric acid
SeO3 selenium trioxide
SO32- sulfite ion (it is not sulfur trioxide because it is an anion.)

6. Give the chemical formulas for the following compounds/ions:
periodic acid HIO4 (Read the name as per-io-dic acid)
potassium superoxide KO2 (the cation is K+ and the anion is O2- )
gallium arsenite GaAsO3
copper(I) sulfate Cu2SO4 (It takes two Cu+ to go with one SO42- )
radium ion Ra2+
ammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4)2HPO4 (the cation is ammonium = NH4+, the anion is hydrogen phosphate = HPO42-

Labs

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:dvJ-UmCVXvYJ:www.mvhs.fuhsd.org/mia_onodera/chemistry%2520documents/labs%25202005-2006/lab%25207-Naming%2520Ionic%2520Compounds%2520Lab%2520and%2520Rubric%252005.doc+Ionic+Compounds+Lab&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us Naming Ionic Compounds Lab
http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/chem30_05/5_acids_bases/labs/testing_acids.htm Acids and Bases Lab

Sample Test

http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:6rOFPlHkWcQJ:www.eskimo.com/~marklan/chemistry/unit3/Unit4Practicetest2008.pdf+Naming+Ions+sample+test&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/blcompnamequiz.htm
http://www.bcscience.com/bc9/pgs/quiz_section3.2.htm

Links

http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_naming.html
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch2/names.html
http://www.ausetute.com.au/namiform.html
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=58
http://www.promotega.org/UGA06004/covalent_bonds.html
http://facweb.eths.k12.il.us/chand/Nomenclature/NomenclatureOutline.ppt#311,3,Zinc and Sulfur:
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8515707211704452774 (video)
http://www.chemtutor.com/compoun.htm
http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/PhysicalScience/Naming-chemical-compounds.html